Supporting Research

“What causes me to feel depressed and anxious?”
Supporting Research and Studies

1: Raucoules D, Azorin JM, Barre A, and Tissot R. “Plasma levels
and membrane transports in red blood cells of tyrosine and
tryptophane in depression: Evaluation at baseline and recovery.”
Encephale 1991;17:197-201

2: Agharanya JC, Alonso R, and Wurtman RJ. “Tyrosine loading
enhances catecholamine excretion by rats.” J Neural Transm 1980;

3: Wurtman RJ. “Food consumption, neurotrasmitter synthesis,
and human behavior.” Experiential Suppl. 1983;44:356-69

4: Agharanya JC, Alonso R, and Wurtman RJ. “Changes in
catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in
normally fed human subjects.” Amer. J. Nutr. 1981;34:82-87

Supporting Research and Studies

1: Neri D, Weigmann D, and Stanny R. “The effects of tyrosine
on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.” Avit Space
Environ Med. 1995; 66:313-319

2: Owasoyo JO, Neri DR, and Lamberth JH. “Tyrosine and its
potential use as a countermeasure to performance detriment in
military sustained operations.” Aviat Space Environ Med 1992; 63:364-

3: Wojicik JD, Gibson CJ, and Wurtman RJ. “Tyrosine for
depression.” Psychiat. Res. 1982-83; 17(2):175-180

4: Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, et al. “Tyrosine improves
cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one
week of a combat training course.” Brain Res Bull. 1999; 48:203-209.

5: Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, et al. “Tyrosine
supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold
exposure.” Physiol Behav. 2007 May 22.

6: Lehnert H, Reinstein DK, Stowbridge BW, and Wurtman RJ.
“Neurochemical and behavioral consequences of acute, uncontrollable
stress: Effects of dietary tyrosine.” Brain Res 1984; 303:215-223

7: Mass PG, “Testing the tyrosine/catecholamine hypothesis of
oral contraceptive-induced psychological side-effect.” Ann Nutritional
Metabolism 2001; 45(3):102-109

8: Gelenberg AJ, and Wurtman RJ. “L-tyrosine in depression.”
Lancet, October, 1980

9: Goldberg, IK, “L-tyrosine in depression.” Lancet, August, 1980

“Herb-of-Grace (Bacopa Monnieri)”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Micallef C, Phipps A, ,
and Smoker J, “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa minnieri)
on human memory.” Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27:
2. Singh HK, Dhawan BN, “Neuropsychopharmacological
effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa Minniera Linn.
(Brahmi)” Indian J Pharmacol 1997; 29:359-365
3. Raghav S, Singh H, Dalal PK, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP.
“Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa
monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.”
Indian J Psychiatry 2006; 48:238-42

“Passion Flower (Passiflorra Incarnata)”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A,
Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of
generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized
controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001 Oct;
2. Cauffield JS, Forbes HJ. Dietary supplements used in the
treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
Lippincotts Prim Care Pract. 1999 May-Jun; 3(3):290-304.
3. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A. The Complete
German Commission E Monographs. Boston, MA:
Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:293-296.

Supporting Research and Studies

1. Beckmann H, Strauss MA, Ludolph E. “Dl-phenylalanine in
depressed patients: an open study.” J Neural Transm. 1977;
2. Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, Zimmer R. “DL-
phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled
study.” Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1979 Jul 4; 227(1): 49-58.
3. Bagchi SP, Smith TM. “Dopa and dopamine formation from
phenylalanine in human brain.” Biochem Pharmacol. 1977
May 1; 26(9): 900-2.
4. Borison RL, Maple PJ, Havdala HS, Diamond BI.
“Metabolism of an amino acid with antidepressant
properties.” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1978
Aug; 21(2): 363-6.
5. Friedman M, and Gumbmann MR, “The nutritive value and
safety of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine in mice.” J. Nutr.
1994; 2089-2096
6. Heller B. “Pharmacological and clinical effects of D-
phenylalanine in depression and Parkinson’s disease.” In:
Mosnaim AD, Wolf ME, eds. Noncatecholic
Phenylethylamines. Part 1. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker;

Supporting Research and Studies

1. Kiss B, Karpati E. “Mechanism of action of vinpocetine” Acta
Pharm Hung 1996, Sep; 66(5): 213-214
2. McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO. “Brain-specific
nutrients: a memory cure?” Nutrition 2003, Nov-Dec; 19(11-
12): 957-975

Huperzine A (Huperzia serrata)
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Ved HS, Koenig ML, Dave JR, Doctor BP. “Huperzine A, a
potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal
cell death caused by glutamate.” Neuroreport 1997, Mar 3; 8
(4): 963-968.
2. Xu SS, Goa ZX, Weng Z, Du ZM, Xu WA, Yang JS, Zhang
ML, Tong ZH, Fang YS, Chai XS, et al. “Efficacy of tablet
huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in
Alzheimer’s disease.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995 Sep;
16(5); 391-395
3. Bai DL, Tang XC, HE XC. “Huperzine A, a potential
therapeutic agent for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.” Curr
Med Chem. 200 Mar; 7(3): 355-374.

Supporting Research and Studies

1. Braverman E, “The healing nutrients within/Eric R.
Braverman.” 3rd ed. Print
2. Andreoli VM, Maffei F, Tonon GC. “S-adenosyl-L-methionine
(SAMe) blood levels in schizophrenia and depression.”
Monogr Gesamtgeb Psychiatr Psychiatry Ser. 1978; 18: 147-
3. Curcio M, Catto E, Stramentinoli G, Slgeri S. “Effects of S-
adenosyl-L-methionine on serotonon metabolism in rat
brain.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol. 1978; 2(1): 65-71.
4. Czyrak A, Rogoz Z, Skuza G. “ Antidepressnat activity of S-
adenosyl-L-methionine in mice and rats.” J Basic Clin
Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 3(1): 1-17.
5. Fava M, Rosenbaum JF, MacLaughlin R. “Neuroendocrine
effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, a novel putative
antidepressant.” J Psychiatr Res. 1990; 24(2): 177-184.
6. Losada ME, Rubio MC. “Acute effects of S-adenosyl-L-
methionine in catecholaminergic central function. Eur J
Pharmacol. 1989; 163(2-3): 353-356.
7. Otero-Losada ME, Rubio MC. “Acute changes in 5-ht
metabolism after S-adenosyl-L-methionine” Gen Pharmacol.
1989; 20(4): 403-406.
8. Crellin R, Bottiglieri T, Reynolds EH. “Folates and
psychiatric disorders. Clinical potential.” Drugs 1993; 45(5):
9. Janicak PG, Lipinski J, Davis JM. “S-adenosylmethionine in
depression. A literature review and preliminary report.” Ala J
Med Sci. 1988; 25(3); 306-313.
10. Bell KM, Plon L, Bunney WE, Potkin SG. “S-
adenosylmethionine treatment of depression: a controlled
clinical trail.” Am J Psychiatry. 1998; 145(9); 1110-1114.
11. Bell KM, Potkin SG, Carreon D, Plon L. “S-
adenosylmethionine blood levels in major depression:
changes with drug treatment.” Acta Neurol Scand Suppl.
1994; 154: 15-18.
12. De Vanna M, Rigamonti R. “Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine in
depression.” Current Therapeutic Research 1992; 52(3):
13. Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine for Treatment of Depression,
Osteoarthritis, and Liver Disease.

Supporting Research and Studies

1. Pfeiffer GC. “Parasymphatheic neurohormones, possible
precursors and effect on behavior.” Int Review of
Neurobilogy 1959; 195-244.
2. Oettonger L. “The use of Deanol in the treatment of
disorders of behavior of children.” J Pediat. 1958; 53: 675-
3. Geller SJ. “Comparison of a tranquilizer and a psychic
energizer.” JAMA 1960; 174: 89-92.
4. Coleman N, Dexheimer P, Dimascio A, Redman W, and
Finnerty R. “Deanol in the treatment of hyperkinetic
children.” Psychomatics 1976; 17:68-72.
5. Levin ED, Rose JE, Abood L. “Effects of nicotine
dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance
of rats in the radial-arm maze.” Pharmacol Biochem Behav.
1995 Jun-Jul; 51(2-3): 369-373.
6. Kugel RB, Alexander T. “The effect of a central nervous
system stimulant (Deanol) on behavior.” Pediatrics 1963; 31:
7. Dimpfel W, Wedekind W, Keplinger I. “Efficacy of
dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral
drug combination of EEG patterns in the presence of
different emotional states.” Eur J Med Res. 2003; 8(5): 183-



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