Supporting Research

“What causes me to feel depressed and anxious?”
Supporting Research and Studies

1: Raucoules D, Azorin JM, Barre A, and Tissot R. “Plasma levels
and membrane transports in red blood cells of tyrosine and
tryptophane in depression: Evaluation at baseline and recovery.”
Encephale 1991;17:197-201

2: Agharanya JC, Alonso R, and Wurtman RJ. “Tyrosine loading
enhances catecholamine excretion by rats.” J Neural Transm 1980;
49:31-43

3: Wurtman RJ. “Food consumption, neurotrasmitter synthesis,
and human behavior.” Experiential Suppl. 1983;44:356-69

4: Agharanya JC, Alonso R, and Wurtman RJ. “Changes in
catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in
normally fed human subjects.” Amer. J. Nutr. 1981;34:82-87

“L-Tyrosine”
Supporting Research and Studies

1: Neri D, Weigmann D, and Stanny R. “The effects of tyrosine
on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.” Avit Space
Environ Med. 1995; 66:313-319

2: Owasoyo JO, Neri DR, and Lamberth JH. “Tyrosine and its
potential use as a countermeasure to performance detriment in
military sustained operations.” Aviat Space Environ Med 1992; 63:364-
469

3: Wojicik JD, Gibson CJ, and Wurtman RJ. “Tyrosine for
depression.” Psychiat. Res. 1982-83; 17(2):175-180

4: Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, et al. “Tyrosine improves
cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one
week of a combat training course.” Brain Res Bull. 1999; 48:203-209.

5: Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, et al. “Tyrosine
supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold
exposure.” Physiol Behav. 2007 May 22.

6: Lehnert H, Reinstein DK, Stowbridge BW, and Wurtman RJ.
“Neurochemical and behavioral consequences of acute, uncontrollable
stress: Effects of dietary tyrosine.” Brain Res 1984; 303:215-223

7: Mass PG, “Testing the tyrosine/catecholamine hypothesis of
oral contraceptive-induced psychological side-effect.” Ann Nutritional
Metabolism 2001; 45(3):102-109

8: Gelenberg AJ, and Wurtman RJ. “L-tyrosine in depression.”
Lancet, October, 1980

9: Goldberg, IK, “L-tyrosine in depression.” Lancet, August, 1980

“Herb-of-Grace (Bacopa Monnieri)”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Micallef C, Phipps A, ,
and Smoker J, “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa minnieri)
on human memory.” Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27:
279-281
2. Singh HK, Dhawan BN, “Neuropsychopharmacological
effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa Minniera Linn.
(Brahmi)” Indian J Pharmacol 1997; 29:359-365
3. Raghav S, Singh H, Dalal PK, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP.
“Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa
monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.”
Indian J Psychiatry 2006; 48:238-42

“Passion Flower (Passiflorra Incarnata)”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A,
Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of
generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized
controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001 Oct;
26(5):363-7.
2. Cauffield JS, Forbes HJ. Dietary supplements used in the
treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
Lippincotts Prim Care Pract. 1999 May-Jun; 3(3):290-304.
3. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A. The Complete
German Commission E Monographs. Boston, MA:
Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:293-296.

“DL-Phenylalanine”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Beckmann H, Strauss MA, Ludolph E. “Dl-phenylalanine in
depressed patients: an open study.” J Neural Transm. 1977;
41(2-3):123-34.
2. Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, Zimmer R. “DL-
phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled
study.” Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1979 Jul 4; 227(1): 49-58.
3. Bagchi SP, Smith TM. “Dopa and dopamine formation from
phenylalanine in human brain.” Biochem Pharmacol. 1977
May 1; 26(9): 900-2.
4. Borison RL, Maple PJ, Havdala HS, Diamond BI.
“Metabolism of an amino acid with antidepressant
properties.” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1978
Aug; 21(2): 363-6.
5. Friedman M, and Gumbmann MR, “The nutritive value and
safety of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine in mice.” J. Nutr.
1994; 2089-2096
6. Heller B. “Pharmacological and clinical effects of D-
phenylalanine in depression and Parkinson’s disease.” In:
Mosnaim AD, Wolf ME, eds. Noncatecholic
Phenylethylamines. Part 1. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker;
1978:397-417.

“Vinpocetine”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Kiss B, Karpati E. “Mechanism of action of vinpocetine” Acta
Pharm Hung 1996, Sep; 66(5): 213-214
2. McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO. “Brain-specific
nutrients: a memory cure?” Nutrition 2003, Nov-Dec; 19(11-
12): 957-975

Huperzine A (Huperzia serrata)
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Ved HS, Koenig ML, Dave JR, Doctor BP. “Huperzine A, a
potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal
cell death caused by glutamate.” Neuroreport 1997, Mar 3; 8
(4): 963-968.
2. Xu SS, Goa ZX, Weng Z, Du ZM, Xu WA, Yang JS, Zhang
ML, Tong ZH, Fang YS, Chai XS, et al. “Efficacy of tablet
huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in
Alzheimer’s disease.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995 Sep;
16(5); 391-395
3. Bai DL, Tang XC, HE XC. “Huperzine A, a potential
therapeutic agent for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.” Curr
Med Chem. 200 Mar; 7(3): 355-374.

“SAM-e”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Braverman E, “The healing nutrients within/Eric R.
Braverman.” 3rd ed. Print
2. Andreoli VM, Maffei F, Tonon GC. “S-adenosyl-L-methionine
(SAMe) blood levels in schizophrenia and depression.”
Monogr Gesamtgeb Psychiatr Psychiatry Ser. 1978; 18: 147-
50.
3. Curcio M, Catto E, Stramentinoli G, Slgeri S. “Effects of S-
adenosyl-L-methionine on serotonon metabolism in rat
brain.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol. 1978; 2(1): 65-71.
4. Czyrak A, Rogoz Z, Skuza G. “ Antidepressnat activity of S-
adenosyl-L-methionine in mice and rats.” J Basic Clin
Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 3(1): 1-17.
5. Fava M, Rosenbaum JF, MacLaughlin R. “Neuroendocrine
effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, a novel putative
antidepressant.” J Psychiatr Res. 1990; 24(2): 177-184.
6. Losada ME, Rubio MC. “Acute effects of S-adenosyl-L-
methionine in catecholaminergic central function. Eur J
Pharmacol. 1989; 163(2-3): 353-356.
7. Otero-Losada ME, Rubio MC. “Acute changes in 5-ht
metabolism after S-adenosyl-L-methionine” Gen Pharmacol.
1989; 20(4): 403-406.
8. Crellin R, Bottiglieri T, Reynolds EH. “Folates and
psychiatric disorders. Clinical potential.” Drugs 1993; 45(5):
623-636.
9. Janicak PG, Lipinski J, Davis JM. “S-adenosylmethionine in
depression. A literature review and preliminary report.” Ala J
Med Sci. 1988; 25(3); 306-313.
10. Bell KM, Plon L, Bunney WE, Potkin SG. “S-
adenosylmethionine treatment of depression: a controlled
clinical trail.” Am J Psychiatry. 1998; 145(9); 1110-1114.
11. Bell KM, Potkin SG, Carreon D, Plon L. “S-
adenosylmethionine blood levels in major depression:
changes with drug treatment.” Acta Neurol Scand Suppl.
1994; 154: 15-18.
12. De Vanna M, Rigamonti R. “Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine in
depression.” Current Therapeutic Research 1992; 52(3):
478-485.
13. Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine for Treatment of Depression,
Osteoarthritis, and Liver Disease. www.ahrq.gov

“DMAE”
Supporting Research and Studies

1. Pfeiffer GC. “Parasymphatheic neurohormones, possible
precursors and effect on behavior.” Int Review of
Neurobilogy 1959; 195-244.
2. Oettonger L. “The use of Deanol in the treatment of
disorders of behavior of children.” J Pediat. 1958; 53: 675-
761.
3. Geller SJ. “Comparison of a tranquilizer and a psychic
energizer.” JAMA 1960; 174: 89-92.
4. Coleman N, Dexheimer P, Dimascio A, Redman W, and
Finnerty R. “Deanol in the treatment of hyperkinetic
children.” Psychomatics 1976; 17:68-72.
5. Levin ED, Rose JE, Abood L. “Effects of nicotine
dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance
of rats in the radial-arm maze.” Pharmacol Biochem Behav.
1995 Jun-Jul; 51(2-3): 369-373.
6. Kugel RB, Alexander T. “The effect of a central nervous
system stimulant (Deanol) on behavior.” Pediatrics 1963; 31:
651-655.
7. Dimpfel W, Wedekind W, Keplinger I. “Efficacy of
dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral
drug combination of EEG patterns in the presence of
different emotional states.” Eur J Med Res. 2003; 8(5): 183-
191.

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